Urbanization in Peru causes a big internal migration. People that live in rural areas migrate closer the urban areas both legally and illegally and start settling and building the houses around the urban areas without official papers. Once the houses are united together as a neighborhood, municipality starts to give them the official papers for their lands.
Urban population has been gradually increasing every year. In 2016, 78.92% of the total population live in urban area. Peru is mountainous and hilly, people build their houses everywhere they could near the cities. More than half a million of Peruvians, who live in a suburban area of Lima, is suffering and killed from mud sliding.
Internal migration makes Lima, the capital city of Peru, and other cities overpopulated, and forces people to live in poor conditions. Wastewater and sewage from houses contain a high level of nutrients, cause algae and weed growth when they mix in the water. Water sources around the areas lack oxygen and living things in the water can be killed. Drinking water sources are also polluted by algal blooming. Consuming the water can cause serious health problems in human, such as respiratory problems, stomach and liver illness, and rashes. Using of fertilizers contaminate drinking water, babies who consume water that is high in nitrates can become ill with a blue-baby syndrome, which can lead to death if not treated early enough.
The unemployment rate is at the highest point in the past decade, it has been increasing since 2012, and seems to continue increasing. The amount of jobs doesn’t cover all the population that has been moving to the city areas.
Peru’s capital city, Lima, has the worst air pollution of all Latin American cities. The burning of fossil fuel is one of many main causes of air pollution in Lima. The fume from the car exhausts contains dangerous gases including carbon monoxide that increase the chance of heart attack in people. It also negatively affects the respiratory system, causes wheezing, coughing, and breathing problems.
Air pollution also worsens the existing heart problems, asthma, and other lung complications. Animals also get an effect of air pollution like humans. burning fossil fuels can cause water pollution. Burning more fossil fuels turns rain to acid rain, acid rain damages trees and acidifies soils and water bodies. Fish and other living things in the water cannot survive in acidified water.
Lima, Peru has many of significant historic sites, but They have been torn down and build more of new residential buildings, schools, etc., to meet the population’s growing demands. Some of the historic sites that survive demolishing are surrounded by high-rise apartment buildings.
Urbanization is destroying the bond between the people and the huacas (historic sites). Instead, people see them as a treasure, people took bricks from an old temple wall that are painted with ancient reliefs to build new homes beginning in the 1980s. Even the government spends only enough to protect 1 percent of those sites.