All posts by bella

A Crisis Under Water

Much like global warming, ocean acidification is a serious result of rising carbon dioxide emissions. Putting at jeopardy millions of peoples health around the world who are depend on ocean life, whether it be their livelihood or their nutrition. Compared to pre-industrial levels, there has been a 26% increase of ocean acidification, a resultant of a rapid increase in CO2 in the atmosphere. Sulogna Mehta in Times of India states that, now the current rate of acidification has shown to be over ten times faster than any other period within the past 55 million years. Both the ocean and atmosphere maintain a ratio of CO2, the ocean hold approximately 30% more CO2 than the atmosphere. This notion is a good one, when thinking about the atmosphere and how it potentially could be even worse. However CO2 reacts with water, forming carbonic acid. Carbonic acid can be considered a “weak” acid, none-the- less is an acid, which produces hydrogen ions in the ocean, lowering the waters PH and making it more acidic. The oceans acidity has increased 250%, making the ocean the most acidic it’s been within the past 25 million years. This issue has made a major impact worldwide, however it has become an extremely prevalent problem in places such as India.

The people of India witness the cruel result of ocean acidification in their day to day lives, due to its negative impact on the sea food they rely on and in many cases their livelihood.

“The rate of acidification of oceanic water with subsequent decrease in the pH value in northern

Bay of Bengal (Vizag-Bengal region) is faster than elsewhere in the world, making this region a highly acidifying zone.”, states The Times of India. Researchers have found that many pollutants from the Indo-Gangetic plains as well as China and Bangladesh have been mixing with seawater in Indian waters because of the regions elevation compared to that of flat land, in return causing the oceans acidification. Ocean acidification has an immense impact on the food chain, due to it’s acidification reducing the growth of planktons, fish feed and shelled marine creatures. Globally, the rate of decrease in PH is .0019 unit / year, however in the Bay of Bengal it’s rate is at a high of .006 unites/year. During winter months, pollutants carried via the air blowing from the land to the sea, include acidic chemicals such as sulphates, nitrates and ammonia. Also, Nitrate and sulphate aerosols eventually deposit in the ocean decreasing its PH. Many metals in the water that are needed for phytoplankton or basic fish feed to grow, also change due to ocean acidification, decreasing plankton growth. Low PH causes a negative effect on the entire food chain.

India firmly believes that, being inclusive of ocean acidification mitigation and adaptation plans must be included in any future international climate change agreement. India also feels that putting money towards strengthening it’s now weak powergrid, in order to improve green energy sources effectiveness. Such advancements are currently out of India’s reach due to its limited funds. India believes that legal advancements towards improvements in ocean acidification are essential to Indian ocean life’s well being but as well as the potential benefits Indian coastal communities which have been heavily impacted by the effects of such issues, leading such communities into a smooth adoption period of changing social, economic, biophical, and ecological circumstances. In return any advancements would aid not one prevalent issue but two. Finally, after lengthy research, India believes the cure to ocean acidification is the same as for climate change. As previously mentioned, 30% of CO2 dissolves into the ocean, and efforts to stop the excess production of CO2 is deemed to help prevent further ocean acidification. If human efforts were made to complete the goals established in the Paris Agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions not only India, but globally the world would alleviate itself from some of the negative climate change and ocean acidification have caused human kind.

Millions are at Risk

The education system in Morocco faces major faults that many believe are irreparable. While more than 95% of children within the appropriate age are enrolled in primary school, less than 15% graduate from high school. The dropout rate among young students is so high that only 53% of students in middle school continue on to high school. Children are subject to a poorly structured curriculum, in which the attempt at a multi- lingual teaching is embedded; this method not only has been poorly executed, but has caused a drop in literacy. Morocco has shown recent improvements and a desire to better the lives of its people, however it’s limited resources and economics means prevent rapid improvement. Economic and influential assistance from the U.S would help Morocco by saving the lives of many and giving people an opportunity to live a comfortable life of the streets of Morocco.
Illiteracy is one of the primary contributors to Morocco’s poor education system. In response to the immensity of the problems in education, the Moroccan government has made efforts within the past ten years to stop illiteracy, because of these efforts a gradual increase in literacy was made. However illiteracy remains to be problematic. In the year 2012, The National Agency For Illiteracy Diminishing stated, “10 million Moroccan men and women are illiterate”. Although more common in adults over the age of fifty (61.1%), the illiteracy rate in Morocco has for many years been high in comparison to developed countries. Morocco World News demonstrates the immensity of the issue Moroccans are facing through statistics gathered from The Moroccan High Commissioner for Planning Ahmed Lahlimi. Rural areas in October of 2015 had an illiteracy rate of 41.7%, more urban areas had an average of 22.2% illiteracy. Finally statistics gathered from the total population concluded that 41.9 % of women are illiterate while 22.2% of men are illiterate. Illiteracy in Morocco has also proven to be dependent upon the given region. More Southern areas such as Laâyoune (located in the Sakia el Hamra region) which has a rate of 20.3 percent and Dakhla-Oued Ed Dahab has 23.9 percent. Béni Mellal-Khénifra, however, has the highest rate of illiteracy at 38.7 percent illiteracy.
Given the recent decrease in illiteracy compared to Morocco’s statistics from previous years, the government has established a system focused around points. Their aim is to earn a total of ten points within a span of five years. Morocco’s Ministry of Culture and Communication writes, two points amounts to teaching literacy skills to 1.1 million people, costing the Moroccan government tremendous efforts in collaborating with different partners to better its peoples education. After the National Education and Training Charter’s (CNEF) goal to reduce Moroccan illiteracy to less than 20% by 2010 failed, it’s new goal to eradicate illiteracy by 2024 was made. Lahlimi states that rates have dropped 10% within ten years. Such advancements have proven to be critical to the country’s overall well being and chances of opportunity. The Global Education Monitoring Report writes, “educated mothers are less likely to die in childbirth by two-thirds and that child mortality would be reduced by a sixth. Literacy plays an important role in mortality rates through the ability to read.”. The author suggests that Morocco not only lacks the ability to deliver traditional education, but health education such as sexual health is lacking, causing unwanted pregnancies and lack of health awareness as well. By establishing a stable education system in which more kids are kept in school and off the streets, and one in which people are educated in all aspects of life, not only would kids have more potential opportunities in the workplace, but Morocco would benefit form a more prosperous and stable country in which equal opportunity and overall health is established. However, Morocco can’t reach such a goal on it’s own.
It’s in the United States best interest to involve itself in Morocco’s educational crisis. By supporting a reconstruction of the curriculum and providing aid, Morocco’s goal of significantly diminishing its iliteracy rate by the year of 2024 wouldn’t be so unattainable. Ultimately saving the lives of many, the U.S should not only feel that they must be involved in what some would refer to as an unjust fate for Moroccan citizens and is purely good, but feel proud to involve itself in something that for the past decade has demonstrated small success. Undertaking a reform alongside Morocco has the potential to save and improve the lives of many people who have earned the right to learn through struggle and hardship.