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The Global Overfishing Crisis from Argentina’s Perspective

Argentina believes that the crisis of overfishing is a significant issue that requires immediate attention.  Studies have shown that overfishing is mutually dangerous for fisherman and marine species.  An overfished stock of fish will drastically disrupt the food chain of the surrounding ecosystem, as their population has been carefully placed into equilibrium by millennia of natural processes.  This results in certain species becoming too abundant while other species near extinction. On the commercial side, an overfished stock of fish may create short-term economic prosperity but will soon lead to a severe shortage of product.  This is because, in an overfished stock of fish, the fish are fished faster than they can reproduce.  This process is inherently unsustainable and creates economic and environmental crises.

Overfishing occurs very frequently in the modern world and has been on the rise for the past half-century.  Since the 1970s, the percent of the world’s fish stocks that are overfished has risen from 10% to 33%. In the same time period, global stocks of large fish have dwindled by 90%.  This substantial uptick in overfishing has come despite the increase in knowledge of the dangers of overfishing provided by scientific research. Additionally, it has come despite many countries’ efforts to protect species of fish.  

Part of the problem arises from the illegal fishing industry, which is estimated to be worth $10-23 billion per year. These fleets of fish dodge regulations around the fishing industry that were implemented to protect the species from overfishing.  However, legal fishing contributes to the crisis as well.  The fishing technique of trawling, which was only recently made illegal by major countries, has played a substantial role in the crisis.  When fisherman trawl, their nets drag along the ocean floor.  This effectively kills all life at this ocean level, causing many environmental problems. The ocean floor is home to many benthic organisms that are the feed for commercial fish such as tuna.  When an ocean floor is trawled, these vital organisms are killed, and, due to continuous trawling and their long recovery time, they are unable to regrow.  Trawling also destroys coral reefs, which are the breeding grounds for many fundamentally important species of fish.  

China can be partly blamed for the increase in frequency of overfishing. China has the largest middle-class population in the world, and its proportion has only been growing.  Due to this, their citizens enjoy newly-attained economic prosperity and, therefore, are demanding luxury goods.  Fish is one of these things, as it tends to be more expensive and higher-class.  However, China has already overfished their own economic zone.  Within this area, they havelost one-half of coastal wetlands, 57% of mangroves, and 80% of coral reefs, the breeding grounds for many fish species.  They have also trawled their waters vigorously until the practice was finally banned by the Chinese government in 2015.  This has forced them to reach into foreign waters for their fish supply, a practice that was encouraged by their president in 2013.  Among these waters are those of Argentina, a country with a miniscule coast guard of only eight ships.  Argentina relies significantly on fishing for its economy, as it brings in an annual $12 billion in revenue, yet China routinely fishes its waters.  The Chinese government hides this practice, as they have publicly stated that their distant-water fishing vessels only take in around 370,000 tons of fish, yet research institutions and non-governmental organizations have estimated this value to actually be around 3.1 million tons, an increase of almost tenfold.  

Argentina believes that China must be pressured into preventing their distant-water shipping vessels from overfishing foreign waters. Additionally, Argentina believes that many of the subsidies that China provides to its fishing industry should be eliminated, for without these, their distant-water fishing industry would yield no net profit.

Myanmar’s Addiction to Meth and Why China is Involved

“Based on everything we’ve seen, Myanmar is likely the biggest meth producer in the world,” states Jeremy Douglas, the regional representative for Southeast Asia and the Pacific for the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime.  From a western point of view, this information might be surprising, as popular drug-related TV shows such as Breaking Bad and Narcos have portrayed our side of the world as the primary producer of drugs.  For those more familiar with East Asia, Myanmar’s persecution of Rohingya Muslims might have overshadowed its drug-related problems.  However, Myanmar’s meth production deserves recognition as a prominent issue with ramifications across East Asia.

Map of Myanmar, with its Shan State region highlighted in red.

Myanmar’s meth production occurs in its conflicted Shan State, located near the Chinese border. This area is infamous for its drug production, having lead the world in heroin production for decades until being surpassed by Afghanistan in the 1990s.  Its ease of production stems from the safehaven that militias have provided to the area.  

The Shan State’s meth production has been closely linked to militias since the Chinese Kuomingtang Army’s invasion of northern Myanmar in 1949.  The Kuomingtang immediately took control of heroin production and began exporting it to Hong Kong, North America, and Australia.  In 1960, China reinforced its support for the Communist Party of Burma, an underground communist organization in Myanmar, who in-turn launched a successful operation to take control over the Shan State.  This organization became known as the United Wa State Army (UWSA) in 1989 and was granted territory by the Myanmar government in 1999.

With their newly gained territory and implied autonomy from the Myanmar government, the UWSA focused on heroin production, becoming the dominant drug producer in Myanmar. However, after competition from Afghanistan and increased social awareness of heroin’s danger, they began looking for an alternative drug to manufacture.  Meth was their answer.  The drug was easier and cheaper to produce, as it didn’t require opium poppy cultivation. Social awareness of meth’s danger was also lower, as the drug is relatively new.  In 2010, the UWSA shifted production from heroin to meth, diving into the multi-billion dollar industry.  

Today, the Shan State’s meth industry has vastly exceeded its legal industries in size.  Tens of billions of dollars of crystal meth are siezed in Myanmar and neighboring countries.  The Shan State has begun selling a version of meth called yaba, which are small pills that contain a mixture of methamphetamine and caffeine.  This cheaper and more convenient form of meth has infested East Asia and the Pacific, as it is thought to be less harmful.  One Myanmar resident stated that she decided to take a few yaba a day to help focus on her studies.  Within a few years, she began consuming nearly 30 pills a day.  “My mother noticed a change in my behavior and urged me to stop,” she recalled, “I was paranoid.  I couldn’t go outside, and was having hallucinations.”  Another Myanmar resident said humorously, “When you start (taking yaba), you look in the mirror and think you are the most beautiful person in the world.”  

Confiscated yaba pills.

China has been repeatedly blamed for the Shan State’s meth production.  The militias who first invaded northern Myanmar originated in China, and the Chinese government has historic ties with the UWSA.  In addition, the precursor chemicals that are necessary to meth production are manufactured in southwest China and transported across the border.  Despite many calls for government intervention, China has largely remained quiet.  This could possibly be tied with their Belt and Road Initiative, which contains massive infrastructure plans along the China-Myanmar border and relies on cooperation from the UWSA.  This places the Chinese government in a tough spot: should they crack down on precursor flow and risk infrastructure plans, or continue to ignore the problem and enjoy a tight economic relationship with Myanmar?

The U.S. State Department should assist with diplomacy between Myanmar and China, for their drug problems have health-related ramifications throughout Southeast Asia and the Pacific.  Representatives should travel to Shan State, Yangon, and Bejing to personally consult leaders in an effort to further investigate this issue and find a solution that simultaneously lowers meth production and establishes a mutually beneficial economic relationship between Myanmar and China.

Reefs are People Too…

Australia’s Great Barrier Reef has experienced some of the most rapid coral bleaching in its history. Until the late 20th Century, mass coral bleachings occurred as rarely as once every thirty years, but now experts say that if trends remain the same, by the 2030’s the reef will experience numerous devastating mass bleachings as often as every two years. In 2016 and 2017 the reef experienced some of the worst mass bleachings in history, where the entire reef network was under high alert. Since then, the reef has suffered greatly, and scientists say that although some parts of the network will recover, it would never look the same again. The Great Barrier Reef developed over 25 million years ago, and is home to over 600 different dazzling species of coral, and the largest open ocean coral reef network providing a habitat to 1,625 fish species, 215 bird species, 133 sharks and rays, 30 whales and dolphins, and 6 of the 7 different turtle species in the world. Aside from the environmental value of the reef, it has an icon asset value of $56 billion, and contributes almost $7 billion to the Australian economy annually. It supports over 60,000 jobs, and brings 2 million visitors per year.

The threats to the reef have been almost completely human caused. Human influence has resulted in a 50% decline in coral cover from 1985 to 2012, and that number is only increasing. Threats to the reef are three-pronged. First and foremost, changes in climate due to increased carbon in the atmosphere affects the reef the most. Rising sea temperature causes a greater risk of heat stress and mass coral bleaching. Ocean acidification caused by carbon being absorbed into the ocean changes the chemical makeup of the coral’s living space. Rising sea levels also cause land inundation which significantly changes tidal habitats on the edges of the reef systems, which permeates throughout the whole network. And increased frequency of severe weather events can destroy and weaken the reef structure, and more extreme rainfall events will magnify the issues surrounding sediment and chemical runoff which causes algae blooms over the reef. Secondly, increased sedimentation can cause higher algal growth, reducing the vital sunlight that gets down to smothered corals, and causing pollutants in sediments to build up among marine species. The third and final threat to the reefs surrounds coastal developments in agriculture, mining, industrialization, and residential growth. Each subsection causes pollutants to soak into the soil which then runs off into the coastal ocean systems, killing the coral around it.

A future without the world’s largest coral reef is unimaginable and horrifying, but hope is not lost. Some of the brightest minds in the world are focusing on decoding and uncovering the secrets to saving the single largest coral network in the world. The Paris Climate Accords show a glimmer of hope for the world’s dying environments, and each day experts unveil new and innovative proposals and solutions for curbing the dyoff of our planet’s largest undersea ecosystem. Through future research, building reef resilience, monitoring and improving water quality, and increased protection of endangered species, we might just be able to save what’s left of the beautiful Great Barrier Reef.

All the Buzz Surrounding Prevention of Mosquito-Borne Illnesses in Southeast Asia

A mosquito borne illness by the name of malaria is all the buzz in Southeast Asia. In early fifth century, malaria was, by Hippocrates, simply put as a series of inconsistent fevers and was even recorded as an aid to the decline of the Roman Empire in 470 C.E.  With the lack of resources and preventive programs, modern populations will begin to suffer if governments continue to keep a “business as usual” attitude towards disease outbreaks like malaria. With technology as advanced as our current age, illness should be no excuse for the deterioration of modern cultures. Vulnerable locations in Southeast Asia include the 7,107 island cluster called the Philippines and the coastal country of Burma as well as 91 other countries across the world.
Malaria is a fatal disease caused by the contraction of a parasites spread through the anopheles mosquito, a coastal mosquito variety. Such parasites carried by the anopheles mosquitoes go by the names of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. They are most threatening in populous countries, countries lacking proper resources, and in locations with high counts of such mosquitos. Without protecting these areas from the anopheles mosquito, there will be an ongoing threat of malaria and developments of new mosquito borne diseases.
NGOs are the best bet in combating illness in poor and in populous countries. Their effectiveness has been proven in combating the HIV/AIDS crisis. Doctors Without Borders, for example, has vaccinated over 25,000 girls in the Philippines with about 90% of them receiving a second vaccination to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Vaccinations are showing the potential to be a trusty way to also prevent the spread of malaria. The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), a group determined to create practical vaccinations, estimated the cost of developing a single formula for combating malaria. At the cheapest, the cost would be roughly $31 million U.S. dollars.  Pairing the work of the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations with Doctors Across Borders, populations would begin to build a resistance to the fatal parasites given off by the anopheles mosquitoes.
The Global Fund is also an effective choice of NGO to battle malaria. So far, the Global Fund has saved 27 million lives whether it’s HIV, tuberculosis, or malaria. The Global Fund uses 60% of international finances to provide treatment and education as well as supplies preventative measures such as providing mosquito nets. In 2017 alone, they dropped 197 million mosquito nets and promised to designate $4 trillion for malaria research by 2030.  Unfortunately, the climate in Southeast Asia is perfect for young mosquito colonies. Studies done in collaboration with the National Taiwan Ocean University found the mixture of chitosan, a chemical derived from crab shells, and silver nanoparticles to be lethal to larvae and pupae of the coastal anopheles mosquito variety. This study shows hope for another preventive measure that NGOs such as The Global Fund can tackle and master.
The Asia Pacific Leaders’ Malaria Alliance (ALMA) uses World mosquito Day as an educational. Author Dr. Benjamin Rolfe describes World Mosquito Day as a way to “… remind governments, interest groups, businesses, and local communities that we all have a part to play in reducing the public health burden of these diseases.” By partnering Doctors Without Borders and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, vaccinations can be given to populous countries and treatments can be provided to those previously infected. To keep mosquito population low, the Global Fund can put efforts forth to develop pesticides such as the one discovered by the students of the National Taiwan Ocean University to deprive dangerous anopheles mosquitoes of livable conditions. Eliminating a “business as usual” approach to the control of malaria will give hope to struggling countries, and one less major headache for the developing countries to worry about.